The Entropic Brain – A theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs
Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder.
Entropy is applied here in the context of states of consciousness and their associated neurodynamics, with a particular focus on the psychedelic state. The psychedelic state is considered an exemplar of a primitive or primary state of consciousness that preceded the development of modern, adult, human, normal waking consciousness. Based on neuroimaging data with psilocybin, a classic psychedelic drug, it is argued that the defining feature of “primary states” is elevated entropy in certain aspects of brain function, such as the repertoire of functional connectivity motifs that form and fragment across time.
Indeed, since there is a greater repertoire of connectivity motifs in the psychedelic state than in normal waking consciousness, this implies that primary states may exhibit “criticality,” i.e., the property of being poised at a “critical” point in a transition zone between order and disorder where certain phenomena such as power-law scaling appear. Moreover, if primary states are critical, then this suggests that entropy is suppressed in normal waking consciousness, meaning that the brain operates just below criticality.
It is argued that this entropy suppression furnishes normal waking consciousness with a constrained quality and associated metacognitive functions, including reality-testing and self-awareness. It is also proposed that entry into primary states depends on a collapse of the normally highly organized activity within the default- mode network (DMN) and a decoupling between the DMN and the medial temporal lobes (which are normally significantly coupled). These hypotheses can be tested by examining brain activity and associated cognition in other candidate primary states such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and early psychosis and comparing these with non-primary states such as normal waking consciousness and the anaesthetized state.
Our videos describing different aspects of what we do.
Can Magic Mushrooms treat depression?- Robin Carhart-Harris at New Scientist Live 2017
Mendel Kaelen 29th June 2016
Psychedelics: Lifting the veil | Robin Carhart-Harris | TEDxWarwick
EXCLUSIVE: Could magic mushrooms treat depression? BBC Newsnight
Robin Carhart-Harris - Psychedelic drugs in science and medicine
- on Help us treat depression! Hi. I would very much like to participate in a trial. I'm 49 and have suffered most of my life with anxiety and depression. I'm currently on dual reuptake inhibitors but they have limited effect for me. I've tried many, many things over the years to…
- on The administration of psilocybin to healthy hallucinogen experienced volunteers Hello everyone I'm on antidepressant from couple of years and I try many different types. Right now I have worst time ever. I try mushrooms which one found my self on last season 2016. I have found but that was very difficult for me. I go nearly ever…
- on Help us treat depression! I would be very interested to hear about your research on your use of psychedelics , I would be very interested if you are looking for new volunteers for further trials , I am 50 years old and I have suffered with depression for 25 years and have fou…
- on The administration of psilocybin to healthy hallucinogen experienced volunteers Hi, I have read your articles and I am currently on anti depressants. I have tried different kinds as I have mild PTSD from military service and suffer from depression constantly. I would very much like to assist and be a volunteer for future trials.
- on The administration of psilocybin to healthy hallucinogen experienced volunteers Hello, I’m am 43 year old male living in oxford and suffered from depression and anxiety for 20 some years and I am a chronic suffer. I am very interested in participating on this type of drug trial. In my 20’s I have picked my own mushrooms once or…
- on Are you having a psychedelic experience in the near future? Hi All, I suffer from depression and anxiety and have done so for many years. After being placed on anti-depressants (again), I had a very bad response and the side effects of increased suicidal thoughts became unbearable. It was an everyday battle o…
- on Help us treat depression! Hello, I am wondering if you have completed your research into the use of psychedelics to aid with depression. I suffer with it myself and want to know if you are still looking for volunteers? I am currently 20 years old, turning 21 in September. I a…
- on The administration of psilocybin to healthy hallucinogen experienced volunteers Hi Drew Thanks for sharing. What was your method?