Relative Harms and Benefits of Drugs

Experienced Drug Users Assess the Relative Harms and Benefits of Drugs: A Web-Based Survey   A web-based survey was used to consult the opinions of experienced drug users on matters related to drug harms. We identified a rare sample of 93 drug users with personal experience with 11 different illicit drugs that are widely used …

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MDMA on subjective and BOLD-fMRI responses to autobiographical memories

The effect of acutely administered MDMA on subjective and BOLD-fMRI responses to favourite and worst autobiographical memories 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a potent monoamine-releaser that is widely used as a recreational drug. Preliminary work has supported the potential of MDMA in psychotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The neurobiological mechanisms underlying its putative efficacy are, however, …

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Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks

Homological scaffolds of brain functional networks Networks, as efficient representations of complex systems, have appealed to scientists for a long time and now permeate many areas of science, including neuroimaging (Bullmore and Sporns 2009 Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 10, 186–198. (doi:10.1038/nrn2618)). Traditionally, the structure of complex networks has been studied through their statistical properties and metrics …

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Brain Dynamical States During the Psychedelic Experience

Enhanced Repertoire of Brain Dynamical States During the Psychedelic Experience The study of rapid changes in brain dynamics and functional connectivity (FC) is of increasing interest in neuroimaging. Brain states departing from normal waking consciousness are expected to be accompanied by alterations in the aforementioned dynamics. In particular, the psychedelic experience produced by psilocybin (a …

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The Entropic Brain – A theory of conscious states

The Entropic Brain – A theory of conscious states informed by neuroimaging research with psychedelic drugs Entropy is a dimensionless quantity that is used for measuring uncertainty about the state of a system but it can also imply physical qualities, where high entropy is synonymous with high disorder. Entropy is applied here in the context …

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The default mode ego functions and free energy

The default-mode, ego-functions and free-energy: a neurobiological account of Freudian ideas This article explores the notion that Freudian constructs may have neurobiological substrates. Specifically, we propose that Freud’s descriptions of the primary and secondary processes are consistent with self-organized activity in hierarchical cortical systems and that his descriptions of the ego are consistent with the …

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LSD enhances the emotional response to music

Rationale There is renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide LSD). LSD was used extensively in the 1950s and 1960s as an adjunct in psychotherapy, reportedly enhancing emotionality. Music is an effective tool to evoke and study emotion and is considered an important element in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy; however, …

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The Effects of Acutely Administered MDMA on Spontaneous Brain Function

The Effects of Acutely Administered 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Spontaneous Brain Function in Healthy Volunteers Measured with Arterial Spin Labeling and Blood Oxygen Level–Dependent Resting State Functional Connectivity. Background: The compound 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a potent monoamine releaser that produces an acute euphoria in most individuals. Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced-order study, MDMA was orally administered …

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